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Android 蓝牙( Bluetooth® )寻找,配对,连接发送数据

2019年4月21日 - LINUX

星期三, 05. 九月 2018 02:03上午 – beautifulzzzz

率先要求在清单配置内部加多多个权力:

图片 1

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH" />
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH_ADMIN" />

1、前言

上一篇讲了何等编写翻译安装逼lueZ-伍,本篇重要在于玩BlueZ,用命令行去操作BLE设备:

图片 2

android里面蓝牙( Bluetooth® )是透过Bluetooth( Bluetooth® )Adapter来举办操作的,所以率先我们须要得到到蓝牙( Bluetooth® )Adapter的实例

二、gatttool —— 老工具趟坑

刚开端接着 Get Started with Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux

操作gatttool,发掘坑太多(主因是工具老了):

采用sudo gatttool -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I去连接
察觉会报错:Error: connect error: Connection refused (111)
谈到底参考LINK-1一开采要求加random选项([\#1](https://stackoverflow.com/questions/32947807/cannot-connect-to-ble-device-on-raspberry-pi))

➜  ~  sudo gatttool -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> connect
Attempting to connect to 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E
Error: connect error: Connection refused (111)
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> exit
➜  ~  sudo gatttool  -t random  -b 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E -I
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> connect
Attempting to connect to 4D:69:98:0E:91:5E
Connection successful
[4D:69:98:0E:91:5E][LE]> 
(gatttool:3104): GLib-WARNING **: Invalid file descriptor.

过一次会十S机关断开,网上说那些工具老了,不提议用了([\#2](https://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-bluetooth/msg67617.html)):

There are new tools to use with GATT, bluetoothctl/bluetoothd is the preferred since with that you have GAP, etc, 
but if want to use a stand alone tool then I suggest you use btgatt-client.

图片 3

//先获取BlueToothAdapter的实例
BluetoothAdapter blueToothAdapter = BluetoothAdapter.getDefaultAdapter();

三、bluetoothctl——NB的新工具

命令行进入bluetoothctl操作情状([\#6](https://mcuoneclipse.com/2016/12/19/tutorial-ble-pairing-the-raspberry-pi-3-model-b-with-hexiwear/))

bluetoothctl

本人在表哥伦比亚大学上用lightblue模拟二个BLE设备ty_prod,之后对其service实行更换,调用scan
on进行搜寻照旧老的,
最终开掘要先用remove移除在此以前的设备,之后再scan就会并发[NEW] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F ty_prod设备
注: 用lightblue模拟的器物的MAC不是固定的
注:
小编发觉在lightblue中不管怎么模拟BLE设备,一旦被连上搜索到的service都是IPone的

[bluetooth]# devices
Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ty_prod
Device 58:71:33:00:00:24 Bluetooth Keyboard
Device 00:1A:7D:DA:71:0A SHEN-PC
Device 94:87:E0:B3:AC:6F Mi Phone
[bluetooth]# remove 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 
...
[bluetooth]# scan on
Discovery started
[NEW] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F ty_prod
[bluetooth]# scan off
...
Discovery stopped
[bluetooth]# connect 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F
Attempting to connect to 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F
[CHG] Device 72:3B:E1:81:4E:4F Connected: yes
Connection successful
[ty_prod]

干脆就用三星手提式有线电话机自带的劳务做测试了~

[ty_prod]# info
Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 (public)
    Name: tuya_mdev_test
    Alias: tuya_mdev_test
    Appearance: 0x0040
    Icon: phone
    Paired: yes
    Trusted: no
    Blocked: no
    Connected: yes
    LegacyPairing: no
    UUID: Fax                       (00001111-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Generic Access Profile    (00001800-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Generic Attribute Profile (00001801-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Current Time Service      (00001805-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Device Information        (0000180a-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Battery Service           (0000180f-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (7905f431-b5ce-4e99-a40f-4b1e122d00d0)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (89d3502b-0f36-433a-8ef4-c502ad55f8dc)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (9fa480e0-4967-4542-9390-d343dc5d04ae)
    UUID: Vendor specific           (d0611e78-bbb4-4591-a5f8-487910ae4366)
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ServicesResolved: no
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 Connected: no

大家用Current Time Service,列出具备attributes操作如下:

[tuya_mdev_test]# menu gatt
[tuya_mdev_test]# list-attributes 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
...
Primary Service
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041
    00001805-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Current Time Service
Characteristic
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0045
    00002a0f-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Local Time Information
Characteristic
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
    00002a2b-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Current Time
Descriptor
    /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042/desc0044
    00002902-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Client Characteristic Configuration
...

上面Current Time Service对应的服务如下图:

图片 4

大家挑选Current 提姆e实行操作UUID:0x二A贰B

[ty_prod]# select-attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0041/char0042]# read
Attempting to read /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042
[CHG] Attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041/char0042 Value:
  e2 07 09 05 01 24 11 03 f1 02                    .....$....      
  e2 07 09 05 01 24 11 03 f1 02                    .....$.... 
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0041/char0042]# attribute-info
Characteristic - Current Time
    UUID: 00002a2b-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Service: /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0041
    Value:
  e2 07 09 05 01 2e 01 03 f5 02                    ..........      
    Notifying: yes
    Flags: read
    Flags: notify

读出结果大约意思应该是:2018-9/5-1:36:17 周三

读取一下0x180A的Device Information:

[tuya_mdev_test:/service0006/char0007]# select-attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# attribute-info
Characteristic - Model Number String
    UUID: 00002a24-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
    Service: /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047
    Flags: read
[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# read
Attempting to read /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a
[CHG] Attribute /org/bluez/hci0/dev_47_B1_26_C1_81_18/service0047/char004a Value:
  69 50 68 6f 6e 65 36 2c 32                       iPhone6,2       
  69 50 68 6f 6e 65 36 2c 32                       iPhone6,2    

自然写、使能notify也一点也不细略,看help就可以。最终断开连接、并脱离!!!

[tuya_mdev_test:/service0047/char004a]# disconnect 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
Attempting to disconnect from 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 ServicesResolved: no
Successful disconnected
[CHG] Device 28:ED:6A:A0:26:B7 Connected: no
[bluetooth]# quit

图片 5

在检索从前,大家得以先得到与大家配对过的设备

LINKS

[1].Cannot connect to BLE device on Raspberry
Pi

[2].Invalid file descriptor gatttool of bluez
5.32

[3].Get Started with Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux

[4].Reverse Engineering a Bluetooth Low Energy Light
Bulb

[5].Doing Bluetooth Low Energy on
Linux

[6].Tutorial: BLE Pairing the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B with
Hexiwear

图片 6

@beautifulzzzz
智能硬件、物联网,热爱技术,关注产品
博客:http://blog.beautifulzzzz.com
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//获取已经配对过的设备的集合
Set<BluetoothDevice> bondedDevices = blueToothAdapter.getBondedDevices()

而是想要获取到配对过的配备,大家务必是在

//手机有蓝牙设备并且蓝牙是打开的
blueToothAdapter != null && blueToothAdapter.isEnabled()

下边我们谈一下蓝牙5.0的<b>展开药形式</b>,近年来笔者知道的法子有叁种
第一种:

//强制打开蓝牙
blueToothAdapter.enable();

第二种:

//会以dialog的形式打开一个activity,并且如果我们通过startActivityForResult的形式的话
//还能查看蓝牙是否被打开,或者处理蓝牙被打开之后的操作
//如果是result_ok的话那么是打开,反之打开失败
startActivityForResult(new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_ENABLE));

第三种:

//设置本地设备可以被其它设备搜索,可被搜索的时间是有限的,最多为300s
//效果和第二种类似
Intent discoverableIntent = new Intent(BluetoothAdapter.ACTION_REQUEST_DISCOVERABLE);
discoverableIntent.putExtra(BluetoothAdapter.EXTRA_DISCOVERABLE_DURATION, 300);
startActivity(discoverableIntent);

<b>关闭蓝牙( Bluetooth® )</b>大家得以调用

blueToothAdapter.disable();

接下去是<b>蓝牙( Bluetooth® )寻觅</b>
第一假诺想要开启蓝牙( Bluetooth® )找出,那么只供给调用

blueToothAdapter.startDiscovery();

不过大家该怎么吸收大家搜索到的装置呢,很扎眼当然是通过接受播放的花样来选用。所以大家相应自定义多少个播放接收器,

class BluetoothReceiver extends BroadcastReceiver {

        @Override
        public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {

            if (intent.getAction().equals(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND)) {
                Log.e(getPackageName(), "找到新设备了");
                BluetoothDevice device = intent.getParcelableExtra(BluetoothDevice.EXTRA_DEVICE);
            }
        }
    }

如上代码,我们得以获取到找出到的蓝牙伍.0设备。大家只需在代码里面注册这几个广播接收器,在调用蓝牙( Bluetooth® )的寻觅方法,就能够实行蓝牙( Bluetooth® )的搜寻了。

//注册广播
IntentFilter intentFilter = new IntentFilter();
intentFilter.addAction(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_FOUND);
registerReceiver(new BluetoothReceiver(), intentFilter);

此间需求专注的是,假设你的代码将运维在(Build.VETiggoSION.SDK_INT >=
二三)的配备上,那么必须加上以下放权力限,并在代码中动态的申请权限

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION"/>
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION"/>

private void requestPermission() {
        if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= 23) {
            int checkAccessFinePermission = ActivityCompat.checkSelfPermission(this, Manifest.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION);
            if (checkAccessFinePermission != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
                ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(this, new String[]{Manifest.permission.ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION},
                        REQUEST_PERMISSION_ACCESS_LOCATION);
                Log.e(getPackageName(), "没有权限,请求权限");
                return;
            }
            Log.e(getPackageName(), "已有定位权限");
            //这里可以开始搜索操作
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onRequestPermissionsResult(int requestCode, String permissions[], int[] grantResults) {
        switch (requestCode) {
            case REQUEST_PERMISSION_ACCESS_LOCATION: {
                if (grantResults.length > 0 && grantResults[0] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
                    Log.e(getPackageName(), "开启权限permission granted!");
                    //这里可以开始搜索操作
                } else {
                    Log.e(getPackageName(), "没有定位权限,请先开启!");
                }
            }
        }
        super.onRequestPermissionsResult(requestCode, permissions, grantResults);
    }

再来即是<b>Bluetooth的配对</b>,近来楼主采纳的是透过反射的样式来调用BluetoothDevice的createBondde()方法,如若大家想监听配对的那个进程,那么大家得认为广播接收器再登记三个action。

try {
      //如果想要取消已经配对的设备,只需要将creatBond改为removeBond
       Method method = BluetoothDevice.class.getMethod("createBond");
       Log.e(getPackageName(), "开始配对");
       method.invoke(device);
    } catch (Exception e) {
      e.printStackTrace();
    }

//绑定状态发生变化
intentFilter.addAction(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_BOND_STATE_CHANGED);

广播接收器里面大家能够如此写

if (intent.getAction().equals(BluetoothDevice.ACTION_BOND_STATE_CHANGED)) {
                BluetoothDevice device = intent.getParcelableExtra(BluetoothDevice.EXTRA_DEVICE);
                switch (device.getBondState()) {
                    case BluetoothDevice.BOND_NONE:
                        Log.e(getPackageName(), "取消配对");
                        break;
                    case BluetoothDevice.BOND_BONDING:
                        Log.e(getPackageName(), "配对中");
                        break;
                    case BluetoothDevice.BOND_BONDED:
                        Log.e(getPackageName(), "配对成功");
                        break;
                }
}

再来就是<b>向业已配对的设施发送数据</b>
发送数据分为服务端和客户端,通过socket来开展新闻的竞相。

服务端

new Thread(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                InputStream is = null;
                try {
                    BluetoothServerSocket serverSocket = blueToothAdapter.listenUsingRfcommWithServiceRecord("serverSocket", uuid);
                    mHandler.sendEmptyMessage(startService);
                    BluetoothSocket accept = serverSocket.accept();
                    is = accept.getInputStream();

                    byte[] bytes = new byte[1024];
                    int length = is.read(bytes);

                    Message msg = new Message();
                    msg.what = getMessageOk;
                    msg.obj = new String(bytes, 0, length);
                    mHandler.sendMessage(msg);
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }).start();

客户端

new Thread(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                OutputStream os = null;
                try {
                    BluetoothSocket socket = strArr.get(i).createRfcommSocketToServiceRecord(uuid);
                    socket.connect();
                    os = socket.getOutputStream();
                    os.write("testMessage".getBytes());
                    os.flush();
                    mHandler.sendEmptyMessage(sendOver);
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }).start();

能够看到无论是服务端依旧客户端,都必要新起二个子线程来操作。那么服务端和客户端是怎么分辨对方的吧,那么就须要用到<b>UUID</b>了,唯有当服务端和客户端的<b>UUID</b>一样的时候技艺够创制连接。

<b>蓝牙五.0连接发送数据的时候的坑</b>
当博主第壹回写好客户端服务端测试的时候,服务端平素报错

java.io.IOException: bt socket closed, read return: -1

也便是那句话报错

is.read(bytes)

立时直接以为是读取重回值是-一就会报错,然而不对啊,在此之前这么写也没有错过,在网络百度了半天,看了人家的博客论坛也从未消除办法,最终才注意到报错的前一句,

bt socket closed

事先平昔以为是如何服务端那边,报错连接才会断开,后来一想客户端也会断开连接啊,那才找到难点所在。原来是自己立时write完数据之后将接连关闭了,那才产生服务端那边连接断开的。所以首要的工作要说一次,千万别急着断开连接,千万别急着断开连接,千万别急着断开连接。

<a
href=”https://github.com/Monkeynessss/BlueToothDemo"&gt;github源代码链接&lt;/a&gt;

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